One of the most successful Li-ion systems is a cathode combination of nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC). Similar to Li-manganese, these systems can be tailored to serve as Energy Cell or Power Cell. For example, NMC in an 18650 cell for moderate load condition has a capacity of about 2,800mAh and can deliver 4A to 5A; NMC in the same cell optimized for specific power has a capacity of only about 2,000mAh but delivers a continuous discharge current of 20A. A silicon-based anode will go to 4,000mAh and higher but at reduced loading capability and shorter cycle life. Silicon added to graphite has the drawback that the anode grows and shrinks with charge and discharge, making the cell mechanically unstable
NMC is the battery of choice for power tools, e-bikes and other electric powertrains. The cathode combination is typically one-third nickel, one-third manganese and one-third cobalt, also known as 1-1-1. This offers a unique blend that also lowers the raw material cost due to reduced cobalt content. Another successful combination is NCM with 5 parts nickel, 3 parts cobalt and 2 parts manganese (5-3-2). Other combinations using various amounts of cathode materials are possible
Battery manufacturers move away from cobalt systems toward nickelT cathodes because of the high cost of cobalt. Nickel-based systems have higher energy density, lower cost, and longer cycle life than the cobalt-based cells but they have a slightly lower voltage .
New electrolytes and additives enable charging to 4.4V/cell and higher to boost capacity.NMC has good overall performance and excels on specific energy. This battery is the preferred candidate for the electric vehicle and has the lowest self-heating
Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide batteries have a multi-layered cathode made of nickel, cobalt, and manganese. Scientists realized that each of these metals has favorable qualities, but their shortcomings leave much to be desired. When combined, all three of these metals produce a cathode with great specific energy and power. The lifespan of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide batteries is also very long – long enough for these batteries to power vehicles like Tesla’s. They’re also used in medical devices and industrial equipment. Thermal stability for lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide batteries is moderate. The thermal runaway is over 300 degrees Fahrenheit.